Kathakali is a legendry of Indian classical dance which is basically a short story based drama performance. The endurance depicted by the artists is praiseful. Last year me and my husband visited Kerala, a state of South India, famous for scenic beauty and heritage. There we both behold the elegance of this classical dance and have seen the tough grind of the artiste. Kathakali is an Indian dance drama where the dancers or artists require a plenty of time to get this graceful makeover. This ethic dance has detailed gestures which expresses the endurance of the artists and musicians. The language of the songs used for Kathakali is Manipravalam.

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Kathakali performance starts in night and lasts till early morning. It is performed in front of the huge lamp named as Kalivilakku (kali meaning dance; vilakku meaning lamp) with its thick wick sunk till the neck in coconut oil. Portrayal of a Kathakali play by actors accomplish in the presence of music (geetha) and instruments (vadya). The instruments used are chendamaddalam and edakka. A distinctive feature of this art form is that the actors never speak but use expressions, hand gestures, and rhythmic dancing rather than a dialogue (but for a couple of rare characters).


10 Natural Remedies to Improve Beauty and Skin


1. Say “NO” to smoking

Smoking has various health hazards, but specifically on skin it leads to appearance of fine line, wrinkles, uneven skin tone, hyper-pigmentation, coarse skin texture etc. Some of these skin issues are even irreversible in nature. Smoking mediates production of free radicals in the body culprit for hastened ageing and permanent skin problems. So quit smoking and get a healthy skin.

2. Say “YES” to sunscreen

A little exposure to sun is essential for vitamin D formation. However prolonged or excessive exposure to sun or ultra violet (UV) radiations may trigger various skin related complications such as sunburn, photoageing (including fine line, wrinkles and sun spots) and even skin cancer. Application of sunscreen having a suitable SPF (sun protection factor) preserves the well-being of the skin. It guards the skin from detrimental effects of UV radiations. You can opt for natural sun protectors such as Aloe vera, Pomegranate, Green tea, Tomato, Grapes, Cucumber, Almond, Saffron, Soybean oil, Jojoba oil, and Evening primrose oil.

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3. Vitamins and minerals as antioxidants

Vitamin A, C and E are antioxidant agent possessing free radical neutralizing properties. Various minerals like selenium, manganese, copper and zinc exhibit antioxidant properties. That’s why food rich in vitamins and minerals should be an inevitable part of diet. Vegetables, fruits, herbs, spices (like parsley, celery, lemon and orange zest), nuts and whole-grains, green and black tea, coffee, extra virgin olive oil, red wine, soy products and dark bitter chocolate are rich in antioxidants and safeguard us against premature ageing.


4. De-stress

Stress is major factor for reducing immunity of body against infections and makes your skin more predisposed to conditions like acne, psoriasis, and rosacea. Stress also sparks off premature ageing. So get a hold on your stressful life and cheer up!!

5. Exercise

Regular exercise augments blood circulation and detoxifies body through sweating. Physical activity like yoga upsurges oxygen carrying capacity of blood and enhance immunity against infectious diseases like acne. Yoga and meditation also helps to de-stress thereby preventing release of stress hormones that further worsen skin conditions like acne, eczema, and rosacea.


6. Watch out for water Intake

Drink lots of water to expel out the toxins from the body. It is advised to drink at least 8 glasses of water in a day to keep skin hydrated, smooth and younger looking. Lack of water makes your skin look more dry and wrinkled.

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7. Adequate sleep

Get a sleep of 7 to 8 hours in a day. Optimum sleep will not only helps in relaxing but also regulates growth hormones in humans responsible for cell growth and collagen production. Adequate sleep makes you fell rejuvenated; lack of sleep may leads to dark circle and dull skin.


8. Deep cleansing

Use mild cleanser especially suited to your skin type. For acne prone and sensitive skin opt for a water base and non-comedogenic cleanser. However in case of dry skin one should apply a good moisturizer after washing the face. Prefer non-soapy cleanser. Good cleansing agent is an unavoidable part of a perfect skin care regime. Milk and honey very effective natural cleanser.


9. Exfoliate regularly

Use of scrub or exfoliating agents provides radiance to the skin by removing dead cells. Best available skin exfoliating agents are natural in origin like oats soaked milk and chickpea flour. But don’t overdo it, it can make your skin avoid of vital oils.

10. Cut down the food with high glycemic content

The food items with high glycemic index are responsible for increase in blood sugar levels leading to accumulation of fat in the body. Enhanced sebum release and acne flare occurs due to having food products with high glycemic index which includes white bread, pasta, rice, low-fiber cereals, aerated drinks, artificial fruit juices, cheese, potatoes, fast foods and lots more. The only way is to restrict intake of these food stuffs and switch to healthier alternatives like high-fiber cereals, fresh fruits and vegetables.


Follow these 10 tips and get a healthy glowing skin at no cost!

Asthma- a respiratory disease


Asthma is a pathosis affecting the day to day life of the sufferers. It is a lifelong disease involving the incapacitation to breathe completely. The reason behind this disability is inflammation of small airways known as bronchioles. This inflammation generates highly sensitive and swollen airways. It is a reversible mechanism culprit for narrowing of the bronchioles which if left untreated can result in irreversible thinning of the airways. This disease restricts the area of air inflow; as a consequence of this less quantity of oxygen becomes available to the lungs. The stimulants accountable for the asthma inflammation are allergens like dust particles, pollen grains, mites or some other factors like change in weather, smoking, stress, physical exertion, hypersensitivity to any medicine and lots more.
About 300 million people are suffering globally from asthma; Americans constitute sixty-six percent of the total asthmatic population. Asthma is a major issue affecting not only adult population but has also involved the children. Asthma can endanger the life if left untreated. Awareness about the disease is a must so that the exacerbations can be controlled.

In asthma, pathological changes including the inflammation and oedema of air tubes occur resulting in generation of mucus over there. The aggravation of symptoms is due to narrowing of bronchioles. The symptoms observed in the patients of asthma are difficulty in breathing, wheezing (a whistling sound during breathing), shortness of breath and coughing which takes place commonly during midnight and early morning. The symptoms of asthma can be controlled by proper management of the disease so the severe acute attacks can be warded off.

asthma pathology

Causative factors
The triggering factors for asthma vary from one patient to another. If you are finding difficulty in breathing due to dust (an allergen) then there might be a possibility that any other individual suffering from asthma do not influence by the same allergen. The etiological factors for the originations of asthma manifestations are mentioned here.
• Allergy causing agents such as pollen grains, dust, moulds, hair of pets, animal dander.
• Physical exercise can also trigger asthma.
• Long term use of some medicines such as beta-blockers, aspirin, ibuprofen and some other can lead to the development of this condition.
• Respiratory infections like common cold.
• Some preservatives and additives used in food products like sulphites, tartrazine (add yellow colour to food), aspartame (sweetening agent), parabens, glutamic acid.
• Exposure to some viral infections.
• Asthmatic symptoms can also be generated because of direct exposure of a person to the hazardous chemicals, fumes or the gases as in mines or other industries.
• Predominant family history of asthma.


Asthma attack or exacerbation of asthma
The worsening of asthmatic symptoms during a short period of time is known as exacerbation of asthma or acute asthma attacks. This condition is life threatening if not controlled in time. Tightening of the bronchial muscles brings out the sudden narrowing of air passages. Inflammation further restricts the air passages by generating a large amount of mucus. All these physiological modifications ends into an asthma attack endangering the life of the victim. Severe coughing, profuse sweating, blue nails and lips, tightening of chest and neck, wheezing, difficulty in speaking are some manifestations of acute asthma attack.


Types of Asthma
Allergic Asthma: It is highly prevalent among children. Allergens are responsible for the provocation of immune system.
Exercise induced Asthma: After 5 to 20 minutes of physical exercise the symptoms of asthma appear.
Cough variant Asthma: The main symptom exhibited by patients of this type of asthma is a dry cough.
Nocturnal Asthma: This type of asthma manifests only during midnight to early morning; production of mucus during night grounds for nocturnal asthma.

Eradication of asthma is not possible but awareness and proper management of the disease can minimize the likelihood of heightening the condition. Asthma therapy includes two facets:
• Long term management therapy: It is a controller therapy which is employed for asthma prophylaxis. Inhaled corticosteroids are proved to be very effective as a maintenance therapy of asthma which acts as anti-inflammatory agents. Bronchodilators such as Long acting Beta agonists (LABA) like formoterol, salmeterol reprieve the symptoms of asthma through smooth muscle relaxation of the bronchioles. When used in combination with corticosteroids in the inhaled form the disease gets well controlled.
• Quick relieving therapy: It is a rescue treatment during an asthma attack. Short acting beta agonist such as Albuterol, Levosalbutamol acts promptly during asthma attack and augment air inflow by broadening the air tubules. These medicines are very useful for the prophylaxis of exercise induced asthma when administered prior to exercise.
Dosage forms used for asthma
Novel drug delivery systems for inhalational use such as Rotacaps, Respules, Diskus, Aerosol inhalers, Dry powder inhalers are approved for the efficient and targeted drug administration. However the traditional dosage forms such as pills, injections, liquids are still prescribed and are very helpful for controlling asthma.

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Tips for asthma patients
• Asthma medications are indicated for controlling and preventing the asthma symptoms. Take your medication on a regular basis, never skip the dose.
• Most of the patients require more than one type of the medication to have a good control over asthma. Not all asthmatics need the same type of medicines. Never share your medicine with any other asthma patient.
• Never use corticosteroids for long periods of time. Avoid self-medication.
• Learn to use the devices or equipment like Inhalers, Nebulizers and Rotahalers for effective and complete drug delivery; if unable to understand the information provided on the user manual ask your doctor or pharmacist.
• Discuss your expectation from medications with your doctor so you can know whether the treatment plan devised for you is working or not. In case you are not getting any benefit tell your doctor so that your treatment plan can be redesigned.
• Asthma is an allergic disease, avoid direct contact with the allergen and always get ready to face the worsening or exacerbation by keeping a rescue inhaler with you.
• In case of food allergies, read the label carefully before consuming a product. The only way of prevention is avoidance of the cause.
Hope that the readers would get benefited from the information given in this article. Awareness about asthma is essential so that the life of asthmatic patients move on smoothly without needing the help of others!

Ebola- a catastrophe


Ebola virus is a life threatening virus which is responsible for causation of hemorrhagic fever among the human and primates. Internal or external bleeding can result after getting infection from Ebola virus. It appertains to the genus Ebolavirus of Filoviridae family and order Mononegavirales.

The Zaire Ebola virus species are also the type species (reference or example species) for Ebola virus. In 1976, first case of Ebola virus was identified near the Ebola River valley in Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire). This virus was named after the Ebola River. Another outbreak of Ebola virus occurred in the same year, in southern Sudan with 151 deaths. The vector or the host carrying Ebola virus is still a mystery which has leaded to unavailability of vaccination or other treatment against this virus. However some researchers consider Fruit bats belonging to Pteropodidae family as the natural host of the Ebola virus. Incomplete knowledge about Ebola virus is a justification for lack of Eradication programs. Rapid transmission of viral reservoirs to human populations further aggravates the severity. As this is an endemic of remote areas, sampling difficulties has made the study of this disease complicated; pathogenesis of the disease is obscured.


The diagnosis of Ebola virus can be accomplished by the given tests;
• Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
• Electron microscopy
• Antigen detection tests.
• Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction assay (RT-PCR)
• Serum neutralization test.
• Virus isolation by tissue culture technique.
Laboratory and clinical studies require large Bio hazard containment as Ebola is a highly contagious virus. Laboratory findings of the Ebola infection decipher low white blood cell and platelet counts. Elevation of liver enzymes is another pathological sign.

Ebola virus transmission electron micrograph image colorized Original image from CDC

Infection of Ebola virus is spread through a close contact with the blood and other body fluids of the infected animals. Having a direct contact with the secretions of the mucous membranes or damaged skin, blood of the infected individuals, contaminated environment and handling of infected animals such as, fruit bats and monkeys has been found as a major cause for the endemic. This virus is so contagious that it can spread from the infected dead person to the mourners during burying ceremony. Even the recovered patients can discharge the virus in their semen for up to 7 weeks.


The initial symptoms of this acute viral infection are headache, muscle and joint pain, intensive weakness or tiredness, fever and pain in the throat. Liver and kidney dysfunction, bloody vomiting are symptoms which appear on later stage of the infection. Finally the condition of patient worsens due to both internal and external bleeding. Ebola virus has an incubation period of 2 to 21 days.

symptoms of ebola

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At present, there is a lack of approved Medicine or vaccine to conquer Ebola virus. A number of experimental treatments are under the clinical studies. Supportive therapy including use of rehydrating fluids, electrolytes and anti-coagulants during early phase of infection is the only treatment. Early treatment may enhance the survival.

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• It is wise to avoid visiting the endemic regions such as Africa, make sure about the current status of epidemic by getting information from the website of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
• Practice the hygienic habits by repeated sanitation or washing of hands.
• Make an avoidance to get closer to the infected people and don’t consume wild animal’s flesh.
• Infected Person or animal should be confined to a place which is away from the reach of non-infected individual. Proper Disposal and sterilization of needles and other instruments is a must.
• Dead bodies of infected patients can also transmit infection. So, special precautionary measures must be employed by mourners.

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